Anatomy means the study of structure and human anatomy means the study of structure of human beings. It is one of the three basic medical sciences, which are taught to medical students who are to follow a career related to hospitals.Human anatomy is purely related to the study of structure. It is not concerned with the study of functions of various parts of human body. In fact, there is another basic medical science, known as Physiology, which is concerned with the study of the function of various parts of human body. Anatomy just describes the structural details.Yes, it is a fact that structure and function are very much inter-related and one cannot be understood without the other but a distinction has to be made because of the level of details in both fields. The details of human structure are so vast that they cannot be studied along with the vast details of human functions. That is why the study of function and structure is differentiated into two different branches of medical science.It can be divided into three major categories.1) Gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy)
2) Microscopic anatomy (Histology)
3) Basic anatomyGross Anatomy: It deals with the study of macroscopic details of human structure. It is not concerned with fine microscopic structural details of human body and is studied with naked eye. It has two approaches of study: Systemic approach and regional approach. In systemic approach, the human body is considered to be composed of different organs systems while in regional approach, human body is considered to be composed of different regions.Microscopic anatomy: It deals with the study of microscopic details of various structures of human body. Microscopic anatomy depends on an important instrument known as the microscope.Basic anatomy: It is sometimes not considered as a major subdivision of human anatomy, however, it is very important for medical students who are new to the concepts of anatomy. Basic anatomy explains all the basic concepts of human anatomy so that the different structural arrangements of these basic components can be understood properly.
We all are aware or should be aware of the negative affect of some foods can have on our health and well-being, things like process foods and fried foods will eventually kill millions.However, have you ever considered what affect some of those foods would have on your dog? Although the dog’s anatomy is more similar to humans than you might think, there is still a great deal of difference as well.One of the obvious difference is that dogs are carnivores while humans are omnivores. Carnivores typically eat raw meat, while omnivores eat meat and plants, but they have evolved to the stage where they eat a variety of other foods as well.Further basic differences can be seen in the jaw movements where in humans the jaws can move side to side, unlike dogs that only move up and down.The teeth of both species are very different in that humans have flat molars for grinding in preparation for the gut, while dogs have sharp and point molars for cracking bones.These subtle differences should allow for the opportunity to examine and understand the other complexities of the dog’s anatomy with a view to learning the correct dietary requirements for your dog.The other impressive ability that dogs have which humans do not have is the regurgitation instinct, this is where if you feed your dog and maybe they ate it to fast or for whatever reason it is has not digested correctly.The dog have the ability to regurgitate or bring back up its food to finish the process, this is similar to how some birds feed their chicks.Although it would be true to say that dogs are not obligate carnivores, which are animals who depend solely on raw meat, blood and bones, for example lions and most others predictors.Or at the very least I should say today’s domesticated dogs are not obligate carnivores as their ancestors certainly were obligates. However, today’s dogs fall into the category of a cultivate carnivores, which is those that eat other things that are not animals.Yet to push the boundaries even further to include the daily foods of humans, could be consider to eventually lead to the detriment of your dog.Humans seem to think that once the dog is in the house that it is alright to treat it like a person and give it human foods.Most people wrongly think that food that is good for humans is good for the dog as well and maybe in some cases it might be alright to give your dog some scraps from the table, but it should not be often.For example, after a thanks giving you have a carcass of a turkey left over, you could give it to your dog, but not for or as a meal with the other thanks giving trimmings.However, There are some human foods that you should avoid giving your dog altogether, things like alcohol can actually put your dog in a coma and can even cause death.Vitamin supplements can cause damage to the digestive system of the dog, not to mention that it can be very toxic to other organs of the dog.Just as some people are allergic to nuts due to the toxins in them, they should also not be given to dogs and also things like citrus oils can cause vomiting.Finally things like raisins, grapes, and currants can damage the dog’s kidneys, also seeds and pit can block their digestive tracts.Salty and sugary foods should also be avoided at all cost as they can lead to obesity, diabetes and dental problems.The number one human food that by no means should be given to a dog and is probably one of humans favorite foods and that is chocolate as it contains theobromine, which is a cardiac stimulant and a diuretic.
Even if you have travelled a lot in the past, you are still susceptible to blunders while traveling, even if you are not aware that you are making them. Some travellers have already fallen into a trap, a not easily recognized difficulty – a pitfall. Unfortunately, when you have already fallen into a travel pitfall, it is often a challenge to get out of it. Just before you board that plane, avoid these four common travel pitfalls so that you make the most out of your trip, along with some smart planning ideas.Travel Pitfall 1: Going Beyond Your BudgetBudget is very important while traveling. It is always a good idea to plan out how much you’re spending versus the number of days that you will be staying in a country. You should be able to allocate a per-day budget and stick with it. Of course there will always be that unprecedented expense. Smart travellers usually get travel insurance during the duration of their travel to cover for unexpected costs incurred while travel such as lost baggage, medical expenses, etc.Before leaving, it is also crucial to make sure you know how much money you have and what you can afford to spend. As much as possible, you should always pay in cash while you are travelling, as there may be places that only accept cash. You should be able to keep cash on reserve in an accessible international account like a savings account just in case of emergencies. There are also several travel apps available that will help you keep track of your expenses.Travel Pitfall 2: Getting Sick While TravellingThe most common travel illness is diarrhoea. Eating contaminated food and water contributes to diarrhoea. You should always remember that when you are in a strange place, stick to bottled or purified water and freshly prepared food. If you are not sure how food is prepared, do not ingest it. However, travellers can also get ill with respiratory tract infections and influenza. Standing on airports or sitting on planes can get you infected with these common illnesses. When you get ill while travelling, it may get expensive. In some countries, expert medical care in most facilities cost a fortune. One thing you can do is to choose travel insurance that covers medical expenses while travelling.Travel Pitfall 3: Not adhering to safety precautionsThere are always safety risks while travelling. In fact, even our own government gives a travel warning whenever we go to certain countries. While we can’t avoid accidents and mishaps on the round, safety is a priority, especially when we are travelling with our family.When you’re traveling you need to be more aware of your surroundings, especially if you are a tourist in a remote region. There are some ways to stay safe while travelling like keeping your passport, travel documents, cash, and credit cards in a secure place, and spreading them around in various bags just in case one is stolen. You should also not call too much attention to yourself and avoid wearing touristy clothes. While this is not possible in many Asian countries, just try to blend in as much as possible. While travelling, women should always be with a group and not walk in darkened streets alone. While it is perfectly acceptable to enjoy and have a drink or two at a bar, keep track of your alcohol consumption. You shouldn’t get too drunk that you cannot find your way to your hotel.Travel Pitfall 4: Not Anticipating your Mobile SituationOne of the most unexpected expenses that await us when we get back from our trip is the very costly mobile phone bill. This is due to roaming charges while we are using our phone abroad. In order to avoid this, you should research ahead of time and see if you can purchase an inexpensive local prepaid SIM card to get very affordable data and minutes. You can always make VOIP calls or send text messages through Facebook Messenger or Skype. There are also other ways of communicating over the internet such as Viber, WhatsApp, Line, and many others.
The Travel Dilemma:Each year thousands of people join travel/vacation clubs in hopes of saving money on vacations and travel. They believe that by paying a fee to a private club, they will be privy to some “insider” information and have access to discount travel options which will in turn save them money. Travel Clubs aren’t new, but their popularity is rising. As the travel industry hikes up its prices year after year, consumers are eager to find new options to afford the vacations they want to take. In today’s economy, only the elite can afford to spend a week at a beachfront luxury resort. The rest of us take what we can get and make the best of it.How Discount Travel Works:Basically, it goes like this. Large travel industry companies own millions of properties which they rent out at retail prices to the consumer (you and me). A large portion of their properties remain vacant every week of the year. So, after they get as many consumers to pay top dollar price for as many rooms as possible, they then sell off the remainder of their “empty” rooms to discount brokers. If you have ever shopped on Priceline, Kayak or TravelZoo, you have probably noticed their prices are less than what you would pay if you booked through the actual property itself. These discount brokers pay a certain price for the properties and then increase the pricing before they market them to the public. The consumer must pay the discount broker more than they obtained the properties to offset advertising, personnel management and web rankings. So, while you can pick up some good deals through these discount travel brokers, options are generally limited and you still aren’t getting the “steal” you may be looking for.How is a Travel Club Different?Unfortunately, some travel clubs act like the discount broker. They will acquire large lots of properties, mark them up and then offer them to their members. But, there are a few travel clubs that go about discount travel in a whole new way. These elite few will charge you a one time fee for a lifetime membership. As a member, you are then welcomed into the inner workings of the company and exposed to travel deals that you can’t get on the open market. A good travel club will never mark up their properties before they offer them to their members.How to Tell a Good Travel Club from a Bad One:Of course, price is the largest determining factor. You should look for a travel club which has a “one time join fee” of under $1,000. Steer clear of travel clubs that charge renewal fees. You should never pay maintenance fees, association fees, Red Week Fees, prime vacation week fees, or dues of any kind. A good travel club will have thousands of properties available from a large geographic area….possibly world-wide. Make sure the club only carries high-quality properties. If the club offers properties at the Motel 6 or Howard Johnson’s, this is not an elite club. The best clubs will offer 3,4 & 5 Star resorts and condos at prices you are currently paying for a 2-star hotel room. Be choosy, and expect great service at an affordable cost.Some clubs do not advertise themselves at all. The club members advertise for them, which saves the company money which they in-turn pass on to members. One particular club allows its vacation club members to become club associates at no additional charge. Many members choose to only to take part in saving money on vacations, and enjoying club benefits. But, others will choose to be an associate and advertise for the company for a commission on new sales. As such, this particular travel club has very little operating expenses which allows them to offer club memberships at a low price with no recurring fees or dues of any kind.So, are Travel Clubs a Good Idea or Not? As long as you sign up under a quality vacation club, it can absolutely be a good decision. You can save as much as 30-80% on each vacation you take from now on. Of course, there is an upfront cost to belong to a club, so you need to determine if it’s affordable on your budget. If you are really lucky, you might be able to join a good travel club, and take that first vacation for less than what you typically budget for a vacation in the first place. My advice is to do your homework. There are a few great travel clubs out there, but you need to be able to distinguish them from the others.